CIA World Factbook 1995: Cyprus


Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterreanean Sea, south of Turkey

Map references: Middle East

total area: 9,250 sq km (note - 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish area)
land area: 9,240 sq km
comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
arable land: 40%
permanent crops: 7%
meadows and pastures: 10%
forest and woodland: 18%
other: 25%

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1989)

current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change


total: 736,636 (July 1995 est.) (78% Greek, 18% Turk, 4% other)
Greek area: 602,656 (July 1995 est.) (94.9% Greek, 0.3% Turk, 4.8% other)
Turkish area: 133,980 (July 1995 est.) (2.1% Greek, 97.7% Turk, 0.2% other)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (female 92,179; male 97,723)
15-64 years: 64% (female 234,929; male 236,693)
65 years and over: 10% (female 42,190; male 32,922) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 16.27 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.47 years
male: 74.19 years
female: 78.85 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic divisions:
total: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
total population: 94%
male: 98%
female: 91%

Labor force:
Greek area: 285,500
by occupation: services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1992)
Turkish area: 74,000
by occupation: services 52%, industry 23%, agriculture 25% (1992)


conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic" or the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

Abbreviation: the Turkish area is sometimes referred to as the TRNC which is short for "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

Digraph: CY

Type: republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia
note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on NA February 1975 from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held February 1998); results - Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George VASSILIOU 49.7%
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and vice-president
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area; elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral
Greek area: House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon): elections last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA); results - DISY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%; seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi): elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results - UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats - (50 total) UBP (conservative) 15, DP 16, CTP 13, TKP 5, UDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders:
Greek area: Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), John MATSIS; Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS; Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
Turkish area: National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Free Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; National Justice Party (MAP), Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (BEP), Arif Salih KIRDAG; Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland Party (VP), Orhan UCOK; National Birth Party (UDP); the HDP, MAP, and VP merged under the label National Struggle Unity Party (MMBP) to compete in the 12 December 1993 legislative election

Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON, Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK, pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas J. JACOVIDES
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772
consulate(s) general: New York
note: Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard A. BOUCHER
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 4536 APO AE 09836
telephone: [357] (2) 476100
FAX: [357] (2) 465944

Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field


Overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry contributes 14% to GDP and employs 29% of the labor force, while the service sector contributes 53% to GDP and employs 57% of the labor force. An average 6.8% rise in real GDP between 1986 and 1990 was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the adverse effects of the Gulf war on tourism. After surging 8.5% in 1992, growth slowed to 2.0% in 1993 - its lowest level in two decades - because of the decline in tourist arrivals associated with the recession in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, and the loss in export competitiveness due to a sharp rise in unit labor costs. Real GDP is likely to have picked up in 1994, and inflation is estimated to have risen to between 5% and 6%. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture, which employs one-quarter of the work force. Moreover, because the Turkish lira is legal tender, the Turkish Cypriot economy has suffered the same high inflation as mainland Turkey. The small, vulnerable economy is estimated to have experienced a sharp drop in growth during 1994 because of the severe economic crisis affecting the mainland. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector; financial support has risen in value to about one-third of Turkish Cypriot GDP.

National product:
Greek area: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (1994 est.)
Turkish area: GDP - purchasing power parity - $510 million (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate:
Greek area: 5% (1994 est.)
Turkish area: -4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita:
Greek area: $12,500 (1994 est.)
Turkish area: $3,500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Greek area: 4.8% (1993)
Turkish area: 63.4% (1992)

Unemployment rate:
Greek area: 2.3% (1993)
Turkish area: 1.2% (1992)

revenues: Greek area - $1.8 billion Turkish area - $285 million
expenditures: Greek area - $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $400 million Turkish area - $377 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (1995 est.)

Exports: $868 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
partners: UK 18%, Greece 9%, Lebanon 14%, Germany 6%

Imports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery
partners: UK 13%, Japan 9%, Italy 10%, Germany 8%, US 8%

External debt: $2.4 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.1% (1993); accounts for 14% of GDP

capacity: 550,000 kW
production: 2.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,903 kWh (1993)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products

Agriculture: contributes 6% to GDP and employs 25% of labor force in the south; major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $24 million

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per $US1 - 0.4725 (January 1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502 (1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572 (1990); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 37,444.1 (December 1994), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 0 km

Greek area: *** No data for this item ***
total: 10,448 km
paved: 5,694 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 4,754 km (1992)
Turkish area: *** No data for this item ***
total: 6,116 km
paved: 5,278 km
unpaved: 838 km

Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine:
total: 1,446 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,911,818 GRT/39,549,216 DWT
ships by type: bulk 473, cargo 530, chemical tanker 28, combination bulk 55, combination ore/oil 24, container 92, liquefied gas tanker 3, multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil tanker 120, passenger 5, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 58, roll-on/roll-off cargo 33, short-sea passenger 14, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 48 countries among which are ships of Greece 705, Germany 174, Russia 56, Netherlands 45, Japan 27, Belgium 25, UK 21, Spain 17, Switzerland 14, Hong Kong 13

total: 15
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1


Telephone system: 210,000 telephones; excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; largely open-wire and microwave radio relay
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: international service by tropospheric scatter, 3 submarine cables, and 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

Greek sector: NA
broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 0
radios: NA
Turkish sector: NA
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Greek sector: NA
broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 34)
televisions: NA
Turkish sector: NA
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police
Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 188,231; males fit for military service 129,397; males reach military age (18) annually 5,467 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $457 million, 5.6% of GDP (1995)