Enclaved Greek Cypriots
- Who are they?
- Facts prove the sad reality
- What has urged these people to remain on their land of their own free will despite the hardships they have endured?
- The Third Vienna Agreement
- United Nations
- Council of Europe
- European Ministers of Education
- Foreign press reports
- A few illustrations of the blatant violations of human rights
- 19 years after the signing of the Vienna Agreement...
- Do the enclaved have a future?
- The role of the international community
- A humanitarian issue
- A test case for Turkish good will
Who are they?
As a consequence of the tragedy brought about by the first and second rounds of the
Turkish invasion on 20 July and 15 August 1974, about 200.000 Greek Cypriots, who
lived in the areas occupied by the Turkish troops, were compelled by force to leave their
homes and properties and move to the free areas. They became refugees in their own land.
However, despite the policy of terror implemented by Turkish troops, the hardships,
oppressions, intimidations and threats, about 12.300 people refused to leave their homes in
the area occupied by the invaders and tried to keep their possessions - their land, their
homes and their property. Since then, these people have been known as the enclaved and
their plight has been one of the most tragic aspects of the Cyprus problem.
Facts prove the sad reality
Immediately after the end of the hostilities in 1974, the enclaved were about 12.300 people,
most of them Greek Cypriots and a few Maronites. They were mainly concentrated in the
Karpass penins- la and particularly in the villages of Rizokarpaso, Agia Trias, Leonarisso,
Agios Andronikos, Agios Therissos, Trikomo, Karpaseia, Kormakitis, Asomatos, in the
town of Keryneia and in Apostolos Andreas Monastery (see map on page 24).
In 1994, only 715 enclaved (520 Greek Cypriots and 195 Maronite Cypriots), the vast
majority of whom are above 60 years old, remain in the occupied areas. It is to be noted
that since 30 June 1994 there are no longer any enclaved in Trikomo.The sharp reduction in
their number was due to the systematic expulsions organised by the illegal authorities
together with their policy of harassment (see graphs on page 23). All these combined with a
well-planned project of colonisation of the occupied parts of Cyprus, with the influx of
about 85.000 Turkish mainland settlers, aimed at changing the demographic character of
The table below shows the occupied areas where the enclaved live and the number in each
area as it was on 30.6.1994.
|VILLAGE OR TOWN||POPULATION
|9||APOSTOLOS ANDREAS MONASTERY||4
The methods of the Turkish leadership include a wide variety of inhuman acts, ranging
from physical violence to psychological brutality, so as to force the inhabitants of the
various villages to sign "applications" to move to the government-controlled areas. This
was intended to enable them to carry on expelling the enclaved under the pretext that the
Greek Cypriots "move on their own free will" after submitting applications and that
"although not encouraged to stay, they are not forcibly expelled".
The expulsions, which are part of Turkey's policy of ethnic cleansing directed against
the Greek Cypriots, were intensified between 1975-77 while the talks were still going on
and despite of the Third Vienna Agreement, and continued later on, in 1981. The year in
which the expulsions intensified was in 1976, leading to a reduction of 57% in the
population of the enclaved.
POPULATION DEVELOPMENT OF ENCLAVED
|END OF YEAR||POPULATION OF ENCLAVED NUMBER||REDUCTION||%
- NOTE: Number of enclaved on 30.6.1994
What has urged these people to remain on their land of their own free will despite the hardships they
Above all it was their great love of their places of origin, of their homes and of their
property with which they have become closely linked due to their hard labour.
Another factor which contributed to this, was the expectation for a quick solution to the
Cyprus problem and the strong belief that justice would prevail, thanks to the intervention
of the international community.
Finally, the fear of becoming refugees and the uncertainty they would face, if they
abandoned their property, also provided another incentive for staying.
The Cyprus government has assisted them by offering monthly subsidies for food through
UNFICYP. On 5 August 1994 they also received an allowance to repair their houses.
In addition to the government, individuals, and in particular, elementary school teachers,
priests and nuns, have all actively and tirelessly contributed to the welfare of the enclaved,
despite repeated threats against their lives by the illegal regime.
The Third Vienna Agreement
In 1975 an agreement was concluded between the intercommunal negotiators, Glafcos
Clerides (the present President of the Republic) and the Turkish Cypriot leader, Rauf
Denktash, regarding the Greek Cypriots living in the occupied areas and the Turkish
Cypriots living in the government controlled areas.
The major provisions of this agreement, known as the Third Vienna Agreement, according
to a press communique issued on 4 August 1975, are the following:
- The Turkish Cypriots at present in the south of the island will be allowed if they want to
do so, to proceed north with their belongings under an organized programme and with the
assistance of UNFICYP.
- Mr Denktash reaffirmed and it was agreed "that the Greek Cypriots in the north of the
island are free to stay and that they will be given every help to lead a normal life, including
facilities for education and for the practice of their religion, as well as medical care by their
own doctors and freedom of movement in the north."
- The Greek Cypriots at present in the north who, at their own request and without having
been subjected to any kind of pressure, wish to move to the south will be free to do so.
- UNFICYP will have free and normal access to Greek Cypriot villages and habitations in
- In connection with the implementation of the above agreement, priority will be given to
the reunification of families, which may also involve the transfer of a number of Greek
Cypriots, at present in the south, to the north.
Has this Agreement ever been implemented?
The Cyprus government implemented the part of the agreement regarding the Turkish
Cypriots; consequently, all Turkish Cypriots, except a few living in the areas controlled by
the State, were transferred to the occupied areas according to the provisions of the
It must be noted, however, that the vast majority of them did not leave on their own free
will but were forced to move to the occupied areas through the use of various brutal acts
perpetrated by TMT, the illegal terrorist organisation of the Denktash regime. The touching
scenes of parting with neighbours, which took place then, constitute a real proof that Greek
Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots can co-exist.
None of the provisions of the agreement regarding the Greek Cypriots living in the
occupied areas, was ever implemented by the Denktash regime. The Turkish Cypriot
leader, Rauf Denktash, not only failed to honour his signature by implementing the
agreement he signed, but he repeatedly violated all its provisions.
In their persistent attempt to take advantage of the de facto situation and divide the island by
changing its demographic character, Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot regime have
implemented a series of well-planned coercive and suppressive measures, imposed on the
Greek Cypriot enclaved, in order to throw them out of their homes and properties.
Blatant violations of human rights
confirmed by objective reports
A confidential UN report condemns Turkish Cypriot "authorities" for the systematic abuse
of the human rights of the enclaved Greek Cypriots, who remained in the occupied area
following the 1974 invasion.
The report, prepared in April 1994, documents in detail the pressures brought to bear on
the 12.300 Greek Cypriots who remained in the Karpass Peninsula following the 1974
invasion. These ranged from restrictions on travel, the right to own property, freedom of
movement and discrimination in education, health care and religion.
The outcome of the afore-mentioned is, that only 570 Greek Cypriots remain in the
Karpass today. In a condemnation of Turkey and of the Turkish Cypriot leadership, the
report concludes: " the Greek Cypriots of Karpass are now a small minority in a part of
Cyprus, which was once almost totally Greek Cypriot, and they are subject to a system
whose long-term aim appears to be directed towards the eventual extinction of the Greek
Cypriot community in Karpass."
The report, which was sent to the UN Secretary General in April, documents what amounts
to an open breach of the 1975 Vienna Agreement, under which the Turkish Cypriot side
agreed to protect the interests of the enclaved. It also acknowledges that the UN peacekeeping
mission has been "frustrated, hampered and limited" in its efforts to implement and
monitor the Vienna Agreement.
"This is the result of a deliberate policy on the part of the 'northern' authorities. That policy
is based primarily on restricting UNFICYP's freedom of movement and access to the
Greek Cypriot community and is contrary to the Vienna Agreement", the report states.
Report of ASME-HUMANITAS
The H. Struebig/A. Krieg delegation of the German humanitarian organisation ASMEHUMANITAS,
which visited Cyprus in April 1976, had instructions to investigate
violations of humanitarian provisions. They had the opportunity to visit the Turkish
occupied part of Cyprus and to talk to the authorities responsible for the Turkish Cypriot
After Mr Denktash's protests, the delegation continued its investigations and completed the
final report in 1977. According to the report:
"... b) the population in the north faces great difficulties because of lack of security for their
lives and property.
c) The conditions of life of the Greek Cypriots in the north are particularly oppressive as
they are deprived of their basic human rights. We established these facts by visiting the
Karpass area and talking to many persons on May 3rd 1977. In particular:
- they are deprived of the freedom of movement and trade.
- They live under permanent fear for their life and property because of continuous
harassment by the mainland Turks and lack of protection.
- They are deprived of secondary education and of sufficient elementary school facilities.
- They are deprived of proper medical services.
- They are not allowed to look after their fields freely and in many cases not even at all.
- Homes and other properties are often the object of theft and the people are being beaten
and generally inhumanely treated.
The problems of the population in the north are becoming greater because of the attitude of
the mainland Turks who have settled there in thousands. We received many complaints of
many crimes and atrocities committed by the mainland Turks against the population of the
north, both Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots without being punished..."
Council of Europe
Various violations of human rights are denounced in the report dated 10 July 1976 and
further confirmed by the European Commission of the Council of Europe report, dated 9
October 1983 and in particular :
Council of Europe rapporteur on the demographic structure of the Cypriot communities,
Mr CUCO, denounces this situation in his report dated 27 April 1992: "I drew a
preliminary conclusion from my talks with all the parties concerned: the establishment of
Turkish settlers in the northern part of the island is an indisputable fact. The presence and
naturalisation of the settlers undoubtledly constitutes a further barrier to a peaceful
negotiated solution of the Cyprus conflict."
- Deprivation of possessions, looting and wanton destruction. The Commission accepted
testimony as proving beyond any reasonable doubt that looting and robbery on an extensive
scale by Turkish troops and Turkish Cypriots have taken place.
- Discrimination. The Commission notes that the acts violating the Convention were
exclusively directed against members of one of the two communities in Cyprus, namely the
Greek Cypriot community.
The report was adopted by the Assembly on 7 October 1992.
European Ministers of Education
On 28 September 1994, the European Ministers of Education expressed concern about the
difficult circumstances under which schools operate in the occupied areas of Cyprus. Their
views were included in reply letters sent to Cypriot Minister of Education and Culture,
Claire Angelidou, who appealed for their intervention to persuade Turkey to allow schools
to operate in more humane and safe conditions.
Foreign press reports
Dozens of articles were written in the foreign press about the inhumane living conditions
the enclaved are suffering in the occupied areas. We mention only a few of them:
- The Sunday Times, 6 November 1977
In an article dated 6/11/1977, the English newspaper The Sunday Times reports the
following: "accounts of a widow's murder and of another alleged murder and an attempted
murder have been revealed by refugees. Greek Cypriots say the murder was only the
latest in a series of incidents in the township of Rizokarpaso, in the isolated north eastern
tip of the divided island, aimed at terrorising the township's remaining Greeks into fleeing
south and leaving their property for the Turks. The Cyprus government has asked the
United Nations peace-keeping force to investigate all three "but the Turks don't allow us to
investigate", said a U.N. spokesman."
- Die Weltwoche, 30 August 1978
In a report published on 30/8/1978 in the German-language Swiss newspaper, Die
Weltwoche, Peter Schmid, who visited the occupied part of Cyprus as a guest of the
Denktash regime, describes the experience he had during a visit to Rizokarpaso, which
reveals the state of terror under which the enclaved live. ŅI ordered a drink at the Greek
tavern and when the proprietor brought it, I followed him into the kitchen to talk to him in
private. The grey-haired man avoided my eyes and evaded every question. "Speak freely," I
urged him. "That would be the end", he whispered.
Outside, in a covered market place, I found that several hundred Greeks, mainly wrinkled
old people had gathered together. When their clothing is distributed, their names are called
out and the items of charity are thrown to the recipient."
- Milliyet, 8-14 January 1979
A Turkish journalist, Refik Erduran, confirms that the enclaved live under inhuman
conditions and speaks of the need to rectify this situation, as it would serve Turkish
propaganda. In a series of seven articles on the Cyprus problem, published in the Instanbul
daily Milliyet (8-14/1/79) he writes that the Cyprus government "repairs and maintains even
the empty Turkish Cypriot houses. It also makes sure that the foreigners on the island
observe this fact. But the money spent is well worth the positive impression it creates.
We too had a trump card we could use in the same way. We could ensure that the handful
of Greek Cypriots who remain in the Karpass peninsula could achieve a higher standard of
living than the one they enjoyed before. We could meet their educational, transportation and
health needs; we could prevent any settler from moving into their villages, we could make
sure that they would not feel uncomfortable in any way, we could provide them with
credits and agricultural aid. We could almost force them to live better.
We could do all this at a cost of 5 to 10 million Turkish liras and the region would pay this
money back in produce in a few years. Then we could exhibit this showcase to the whole
But we did not do any of these things. Our inadequacy in propaganda springs not from lack
of words but from our inability to make proper use of such opportunities."
- 24 Heures, 3 June 1980
Having visited Cyprus in 1980, Gilberate Favre of the French-language Swiss newspaper
24 Heures, reported the following:
"The number of Greek Cypriot refugees is not about to diminish for nearly everyday,
Cypriots enclaved in the Karpass region, in the Famagusta district, are expelled by the
"A quarter of an hour to leave everything"
According to refugees' testimonies, the methods of intimidation of the Turkish army are
diverse. First of all, there is the daily war of humiliations and "punishments" to give an
example of them. There is also an attempt to give this policy of expulsion an aspect of
legality although, in actual fact, it is contrary to the Charter of Human Rights.
"I was given a quarter of an hour to leave my house and my village", a refugee says.
"Turkish soldiers made me sign a statement according to which I wanted to leave my
village. Then they took me to the U.N. zone and showed my statement to U.N. soldiers."
... Nodding his head saddly, an old man, who has lived under Turkish occupation for four
years, tells me that he was willing to put up with almost anything in order to remain in his
house and in his ancestral village."
A few illustrations of the blatant violations
of human rights
In order to eliminate the Greek Cypriot element from the occupied areas, completely isolate
the two communities of the island and allege that co-existence is "unrealistic", a most
reprehensible policy was conceived, i.e a combination of the brutal separation of families
with the systematic colonisation of the occupied areas.
There is a continuous influx of thousands of Turkish settlers from Anatolia, who do not
only change the demographic structure of the island but also harass both Greek Cypriots
and Turkish Cypriots living in the occupied areas.
The mainland settlers, estimated presently at about 85.000, were used as a lever of pressure
on the enclaved so as to force them to abandon their homes. Most of the crimes committed
by Turkish mainland settlers against Greek Cypriot enclaved, were intended to terrorise
them further, so as to leave their land and properties which were subsequently distributed
amongst the mainland settlers.
Threats constitute another measure of psychological pressure. Some of the threats used to
"persuade" the Greek Cypriots to sign applications are the following: "If you do not sign,
you will join the ranks of the missing", "if you do not sign, you will in any case be
removed from your home and be taken to another area," "if you do not sign, you will in
any case be evicted, but without any of your belongings".
In order to realise the full extent of the violations of human rights in the case of the
enclaved, the following are some illustrations of the inhumanities perpetrated against the
Greek Cypriots in the Turkish occupied area. It is to be noted that this is not a
- Separation of families. The vast majority of Greek Cypriot prisoners of war were released
in the areas controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus and were never
allowed to be reunited with their wives and children as should be the case according to the
provisions of the Vienna Agreement.
In addition, most children were obliged to leave their homes in order to go to secondary
school. In both cases, families were either brutally separated or obliged to move to the
south so as to lead a normal family life again.
Children under sixteen are allowed to visit their parents during the Christmas and Easter
holidays, but always at the discretion of the occupying regime. Many has been the time
when the children, ready to take the bus, have been turned back.
- Lack of Education. The lack of education possibilities for their children is another form of
indirect but effective pressure exerted on the enclaved to make them leave their land. The
Denktash regime has never allowed the operation of secondary schools. Only three
elementary schools were allowed to operate in the villages of Rizokarpaso, Kormakitis and
Agia Trias. Thus, many children are obliged to come to the areas under the control of the
Cyprus Republic, away from their families in order to attend secondary schools.
Another form of pressure is the refusal of the Turkish Cypriot regime to allow any
replacements of teachers, who were forced to leave the occupied areas. Today there are
only four teachers left. They are obliged to face the threats of the illegal regime on a daily
basis and they have to make enormous efforts and undergo many sacrifices in order to keep
the three elementary schools in operation. In the two elementary schools for Greek
Cypriots, the very few pupils are not allowed to be taught history, religion and geography
of Cyprus. Despite the fact that the Ministry of Education sends the textbooks on time, in
July, these are kept and "checked" by the Denktash regime which delivers them around the
end of November or at the beginning of December or it may choose not to deliver them at
- Murders. There is a long list of murders of helpless people, mostly the elderly. Incidents
of murders were reported with dates and specific details by people who were once
enclaved. In most cases, they have been confirmed by foreign press reports. Such
characteristic cases are the ones of Demetris Demetri and Flourentza Flourou from
Rizokarpaso, who were both robbed, stabbed, cut into pieces and eventually burnt by
mainland settlers in May 1990. Even in the case of such incidents, the so-called "police" of
the Denktash regime has taken no measures to protect the enclaved and never has any
offender been arrested or punished.
- Rapes and threatened rapes. A flagrant case of rape was that of a fourteen-year-old girl
who, on 3/10/76 was raped in the presence of her father, who was at the same time
assaulted, beaten up and robbed.
- Savage beatings. Greek Cypriot men of all ages are savagely beaten up and then asked to
sign applications to leave, under some pretext or another, and frequently without a pretext.
This is a daily occurrence in all occupied Greek Cypriot villages.
- Detention and ill-treatment. Greek Cypriot men are arrested and detained for a number of
days, without reason, ill-treated and then asked to sign applications in order to leave.
- Forced labour and humiliations. Forced labour and humiliation are part of the everyday
life of the enclaved. The innumerable occasions when Turks have forced Greek Cypriots to
carry out specific tasks are vividly described by those previously enclaved who sought
refuge and are now living in the area controlled by the Cyprus government. They describe,
for instance, how Greek Cypriots were forced to build the house of a sergeant of the
Denktash "police" in Agios Andronikos and were then refused payment for their work.
- Plundering of movable and immovable property. Enclaved Greek Cypriots, who were
not able to prove, by producing title- deeds, that the houses in which they lived belonged to
them (either because they lost the title-deeds or because the houses belonged to their
children or parents) were forcibly driven out and were obliged to live in barracks or with
relatives. Their houses were subsequently seized by the Turkish Cypriot administration.
On many occasions, property owned by the enclaved was confiscated and given to settlers
from mainland Turkey. The property, which had not officially been confiscated by the
Denktash regime, was either plundered by mainland settlers or included in the military
"restricted areas" or, was out-of-bounds to the enclaved.
In addition, the enclaved were never certain that they would ever enjoy any income from
their labour. In many cases, mainland settlers would harvest the fields sown by the Greek
Cypriots, the lawful owners of those fields.
- Burglaries. This is a routine event, from which no home escapes. Even the elderly, as
well as the invalided are not spared. With a view to terrorising the enclaved, masked men
raid the houses of the enclaved Greek Cypriots during the night, whom they beat up,
sometimes to death.
Another method widely adopted to terrorise the Greek Cypriots, includes knocking on
doors during the night, throwing stones at houses and firing shots in the air.
- No freedom of movement. Greek Cypriot in the Turkish occupied area has ever been
granted anything remotely resembling freedom of movement. They are all strictly confined
to the precincts of their villages and are subjected to strict curfews. The enclaved are not
allowed to visit the nearby villages without "police" supervision, unless they report to the
"police" on the purpose of their visit beforehand.
All men between the ages of 18 and 50 must report to the "police" once a week. Even today
the enclaved are not allowed to visit the free areas unless they have submitted an
application. Such applications must be submitted two weeks in advance and time limitations
are imposed on their stay in the government controlled area. Many are the times the
Denktash regime has denied them permission to visit the area controlled by the government
of Cyprus. As a result, the Greek Cypriot enclaved can never be sure when they will be
able to do so.
The steps taken to isolate and restrict the movement of the Greek Cypriots have been
intensified as the years passed. As a result, the enclaved are not even allowed to go out in
the fields near their villages without the permission of the Turkish Cypriot "police". As for
the visits to nearby villages or to the town of Ammochostos, they are very rare indeed.
When they occur, they always take place under the supervision of the Turkish Cypriot
- No communication. The Greek Cypriot enclaved are always forbidden to come into
contact with any visitors unless the so-called "policemen" of the Denktash regime are
present. Even direct contact with UNFICYP soldiers, whose movement is seriously
limited, is not allowed without the presence of "policemen". When food is distributed by
the United Nations,"policemen" are present in order to prevent any free conversation
between the enclaved and U.N. soldiers. Moreover, communication between the enclaved
and their relatives in the free areas is virtually impossible as there is not a single
telephone in the villages inhabited by the enclaved. Correspondence with their relatives
is only allowed through the United Nations but mail is checked by the "police" of the
- No medical care. The provision of the Third Vienna Agreement concerning medical care
was never implemented. No Greek Cypriot doctors were ever allowed to settle in the area
or to visit the enclaved on a regular basis. The Denktash regime refuses to give permission
to the enclaved to visit the free areas for medical care. There have been, for example,
incidents in which the enclaved were forced to leave their houses and land and move to the
free areas because of health problems and the lack of adequate medical care in the occupied
areas. Following their recovery and when they wish to return to their houses the Denktash
regime refuses to allow them back.
- Restriction of trade. The shepherds are restricted to grazing their flocks only a short
distance outside their village. They use old abandoned houses in the villages as sheepfolds
in order to try to prevent animal robberies by the mainland settlers.
Moreover, Turkish settlers take their sheep into the cultivated fields, thus, destroying the
Fishermen are no longer allowed to fish and their boats have been mostly stolen by the
Moreover, according to witnesses, Turkish settlers used to buy their groceries on credit
from shops owned by Greek Cypriots but never payed for them. Every kind of commercial
and economic deal between enclaved Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots is prohibited
"by law". Anybody caught violating this ban is arrested and brought before Turkish
Cypriot courts which impose heavy fines. The object of this measure is to impose such
financial constraints on the enclaved so as to force them to request their transfer to the free
Apart from farming restrictions, their ability to earn a living is further limited by their being
forced to sell their produce at ridiculously low prices.
- Religious intolerance. The enclaved Greek Cypriots are unable to practice their religion
freely. They are not allowed to attend church services and it is forbidden for the church
bells to toll. Besides, it must be noted that most churches have been desecrated. In 1994,
there were only two priests in the occupied areas.
- House searches. Turkish "police" search Greek Cypriot houses requesting ownership
documents for items such as cookers, heaters and radios etc. Any items for which no such
documents can be produced, are confiscated.
19 years after the signing of the Vienna Agreement...
Almost two decades after the signing of the Agreement, Greek Cypriot enclaved, whose
population has dramatically shrunk to a point threatening their future existence there,
continue to live in appalling and unacceptable conditions.
Do the enclaved have a future?
Concluding, it is obvious that the enclaved face an extremely serious danger. Unless
practical measures are implemented, they are condemned to annihilation as their existence is
being seriously threatened.
The role of the international community
Only the international community can urge Turkey to comply with international law and
finally, fully implement the Third Vienna Agreement in the form of a temporary measure
until a final and just solution of the Cyprus problem is reached.
In this respect, the international community should, above all, become aware of the tragedy
and calamities of the enclaved, and consequently safeguard the right of these people to
remain in their ancestral land in conditions of safety and dignity.
A humanitarian issue
It should be understood that as this is obviously a humanitarian issue, a special and
separate aspect from the political aspects of the Cyprus problem and an issue of violation of
human rights, the implementation of the Third Vienna Agreement is a matter of ethics and
of principle. If not rectified, Turkey's unacceptable conduct might prove to be a dangerous
precedent for some unscrupulous leaders, who will certainly not hesitate to imitate such a
conduct because of the international community's tolerance.
A test case for Turkish good will
The respect of the human rights of the enclaved on the part of the Turkish side is a test case
for Turkish credibility for any future agreement. The intransigence of the Turkish side in
the case of this humanitarian issue leads to justifiable queries: "How can the Greek
Cypriots trust any future agreement when the existing agreement on the enclaved has been
so blatantly violated?"
Finally, the role of the enclaved in the success of any future settlement of the Cyprus issue
and in the creation of confidence between the two communities is underestimated.
This handful of people could be the link between them, they could be the bridge between
the occupied areas and the free areas and the proof (contrary to the allegations of advocates
in favour of the partition of the island) that the two communities can and must co-exist in
order to build together a brilliant future for a single and sovereign Republic of Cyprus.
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