CONTENTS

U.D.I.

The result was that on that very day Mr. Denktash declared a separate "state" which he named the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("T.R.N.C."). While Turkey feigned surprise at this secessionist move, it promptly recognised the "new state" and pledged to assist it. The Turkish Cypriot leadership's unlawful action, however, provoked universal condemnation and the international community unequivocally declared that there was no question of recognition.
The then President of Cyprus, Mr. Kyprianou said in a statement on 15 November that "this action not only complicated further the Cyprus problem but made it clear that the intention of the Turkish side was always to create faits accomplis and to create conditions for the secession of the occupied area from the Republic of Cyprus". Moreover, the purported declaration of independence in the occupied part of the island - an action that would never have been possible if the Turkish troops had not been there - is incompatible with the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee under which Turkey, together with Britain and Greece, had undertaken to safeguard the independence of the island. But this arbitrary step not only violates the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Cyprus. It is, in addition, in direct contravention of the U.N. Charter, the Helsinki Final Act and international law and will inevitably lead to even greater instability in the region.
The U.N. Secretary-General stressed that this move was "contrary to the resolution of the Security Council on Cyprus and at variance with the high-level agreements of 1977 and 1979". He believed that the unilateral declaration of "independence was bound to affect adversely the situation in Cyprus" and to complicate his efforts "to promote an agreed, just and lasting settlement".
The Secretary-General noted that the announcement was made at a time when Mr. Gobbi arrived in Cyprus to initiate consultations in preparation for the high-level meeting suggested by Mr. Denktash.
The Governments of Cyprus, Greece and Britain jointly requested an emergency session of the U.N. Security Council to consider the situation. On 18 November 1983 the Security Council adopted resolution 541 (1983) proposed by Britain which, inter alia, deplores the declaration of the purported secession of part of the Republic of Cyprus, considers the declaration as legally invalid and calls for its withdrawal, calls for the urgent and effective implementation of its resolutions 365 (1974) and 367 (1975) and calls on all states not to recognise any Cypriot state other than the Republic of Cyprus1. The resolution was adopted by 13 votes (including all five Permanent Members) to one (Pakistan) with one abstention (Jordan). The Cyprus crisis was also among the concerns of the Commonwealth Summit Conference in New Delhi. In the Final Communique of the Conference, issued on 29 November, 1983, Commonwealth Heads of State condemned the declaration of a secessionist "state" and fully endorsed U.N. Security Council resolution 541 of 18 November. They called on all states "not to facilitate" or in any way assist the act which they regarded as a "challenge to the international community1"
The Commonwealth leaders, further agreed to establish a special 5-nation action group on Cyprus at high-level "to assist in securing compliance with Security Council Resolution 541" and to work with the United Nations to try and solve the Cyprus crisis. Apart from the Secretary-General, the action group comprises Australia, Guyana, India, Nigeria and Zambia.
Moreover the latest Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in October 1989 which was held in Kuala Lumpur also condemned the unilateral declaration of independence by the Turkish Cypriots and called on all states not to recognise any Cypriot state other than the Republic of Cyprus. Furthermore, Heads of Government stressed the importance of securing compliance with all UN Resolutions on Cyprus2. The European Community too has taken measures to demonstrate its rejection of the pseudo-state. The E.E.C. Council of Ministers decided to suspend trade concessions for Turkish Cypriot goods and ruled that products exported from the island must be accompanied by a certificate of origin issued by the Government Authorities of Cyprus.

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Giorgos Zacharia (lysi@mit.edu) 1995-1999.